When we think of surgery, most of us imagine a shiny operating theatre with state-of-the-art tools and machines. If you studied history, you might conjure images of gruesome procedures carried out in public auditoriums. However, it's now known that surgery pre-dates written history. There's evidence that as long ago as 6500 BCE, people were drilling holes in patients' skulls in a nightmarish-sounding operation called 'transpanation.' During this procedure, the surgeon would use a tool to drill or scrape away a small section of the skull bone to expose the membrane surrounding the brain, known as the 'dura mater.' The reasons for doing this aren't entirely clear, although historians believe doctors at the time may have attempted to cure epilepsy or relieve pressure within the skull. Surprisingly, it appears around half of the patients actually lived the tell the tale after undergoing transpanation.
Could You Cut It As A Top Surgeon?
1. What is the average lung capacity of an adult male?
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